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tv   The Presidency  CSPAN  November 16, 2014 10:30pm-10:46pm EST

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place that has a duel distinction of being a national alignment and historic shrine. the shrine part was added in the early 1940's because, after all, this is the only birthplace of the national anthem. we only have one national anthem. and this is the birthplace of it. so, national minute for his history. historic shrine as the birthplace of the national anthem. makes fort mchenry they unique, one of the crown jewels of the national parks service. as a ranger, it is a special honor to be the caretakers of this treasure of the american people. >> the personality of madison is >> you can watch this and other artifacts programs at any time by visiting our c-span.org/history. > all weekend long, american history tv is joining our
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charter cable partners to show history of madison, wisconsin. to learn more about our cities tour, visit c-span.org/localcontent. we continue now with the look at the history of madison. this is "american history tv" on c-span 3. >> the personality of madison is a fascinating thing to study. historians look at cities the same way that biographers look at people. so, when i looked at madison i wanted to know what are the salient qualities of the city. in order to do that, you have to study the whole sweep of the city, and you have to learn what the essence of the city is and how it developed and why. out of that process, i came to some interesting conclusions and they begin with some key facts. for example, madison's leaders have always thought of themselves as living in a very
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special place. a place that requires tight, top regulations to control the quality of the environment. and because it is special, many leaders have been quite visionary in the way they have viewed the city. so, those kinds of qualities lead to certain personality characteristics. one, madison is a very special place. the second quality is that we have to do a number of things to keep madison special. and the third element is getting active. madison has more organizations then you can imagine. they come in all shapes, sizes, and colors. so the activism stems from the fact that madison is special and requires a lot of work and effort from citizens to keep it that way. madison was founded in 1836 and
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1837. there is about a two-year period where the territory legislature picked madison to be the capital. the location of the capital turned out to be very important for the future of the city. it was located in the southern part of the state, where the area where the richest farmland was located. later, this became the area where we had railroads coming in from all directions. what those things meant is that madison could be an agricultural city, a place for you could manufacture all kinds of agricultural implements. we could have all kinds of commerce here. so, those are some of the factors that shaped what madison became in the future. the third factor is very important, and that is the natural beauty of the city. people typically come here and they say, my god.
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what a beautiful place this is. and therefore, they try to keep it that way. that is the third quality that was instrumental in shaping the city we enjoy. the location was important because it was located in exactly halfway between lake michigan and the mississippi river. when you try to locate the capital out of unorganized land, being in the center was very important. that was a key factor locating the city, and the reason why the legislator picked this location. madison is a very rare city on an isthmus. it is a relatively narrow -- waist surrounded by lakes. very few cities have this distinction. the man who laid out madison had seen washington, d.c., many times. one of his goals was to try to copy the street design that he saw in washington, d.c., here.
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so he did. by that, all of the streets came together and focus on a public building, such as the capitol. that was the key idea. the fact that madison was laid out on it is miss -- isthmus surrounded by two lakes had implications for the future. visitors from east, people who wanted to settle here, said, my goodness, this is beautiful. because it is beautiful, we have to keep it special. as i study the sweep of madison's history, that single perception probably played a larger role in the history of the city than any other. we wanted to not only build on the beauty, the natural beauty of madison with the buildings, the human products we create. so there is no question in my mind that the natural beauty placed a high standard on the
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human construction. and that has been a theme. the relationship between the city and the university is fascinating. the concept of having a university here in madison occurred very early, in 1837. but it was not until 1848 that the university had any money and was able to get started and was able to start building buildings. the university of wisconsin, in fact, was very small during almost all of the 19th century. it was only in the late 1890's that it be can to grow rapidly. from that point forward, it continued to grow rapidly throughout most of the 20th century. so when the university suddenly got into this big growth spurt in the 1890's and through the teens, business leaders said this is an economic engine. this is the way to grow madison.
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that was a fascinating revelation for business leaders, because they had not thought of the university as economic development. one of the most interesting stories was the history of the progressive movement. to a large extent, it was about a relationship between president trost and ice -- charles van hyes, and the governor with the state. they decided to have something that was called a saturday lunch club. they and their aids would get together. the goal was to try to find ways that the university could help the state. one of the most interesting ways this occurred -- and it was later called the wisconsin idea, a big idea -- that people in wisconsin are very proud of. i will give you a quick example. it was sewage. one of the biggest problems all
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cities in north america had was how to get rid of sewage. so here we are in madison. we had some lakes. the idea is we will put the sewage in the lakes. that had terrible consequences for the quality of the lakes. but the reason he was, my goodness, paris puts all of its sewage in the river. why can't we do this? the lakes, there is no downstream. it did not work out. this was a huge problem. it was a problem for every city. however, at the university of wisconsin, we have professors who specialized in sewage treatment. and they were able to offer their expertise to the city of madison at no charge that caused madison to have one of the most sophisticated sewage treatment systems in north america. and that is an example of this wonderful relationship that
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occurred between the university of wisconsin and madison. but it's a story that has statewide significance. it helps farmers and agricultural sophistication and the list goes on and on all under the wisconsin idea. madison had many ways to grow. it could be a city of business, it already was a home of the university of wisconsin. it was the capital of the state. therefore, it's legislative center. one of the real questions about madison was what shall it become? one of them was to be a very wonderful northern resort where people would come here in the summertime from places like st. louis and new orleans and enjoy the beautiful lakes and the cool weather. that was one option. another option was we could also have factories here.
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and that was a fight starter question. if you wanted to get discussion going in madison, then you throughout the idea of turning madison into a factory city. this was one of the very few places in the country where that particular feature was vehemently rejected because most of the civic leaders at that time, the 19th, early 20th century, felt very strongly that it was very important to keep madison beautiful. this did not mean that they would not be interested in business. they wanted business, but they wanted something they called high grade factories. people who, would come here with skills, working fancy machines. almost high-tech in today's terminology. and that was a huge debate that ultimately settled only after 60 years of discussion. and the resolution was madison
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will be both a university town, i capital of the state, and also will be a place where very specific types of high grade, high technology factories would be accepted. interestingly, when the first business organization started in 1913, one of the things they wanted to do was to attract factories. but 24 factories said we want to come to madison. only two were selected by the business leaders to come, because they were the right kind of factory. the factories that are -- our civic leaders thought were ones that required great skill, machine tool manufacturing is one example. the reason they wanted people with these kinds of skills was because they would get paid more money. they could buy houses, and they would send their kids to the
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university of wisconsin. that was not the image that many people had of the so-called grimy worker who worked in steel mills and that type of industry. the formative years in madison set a pattern that is evident even today. and that pattern was, look, we have got a very special place here. we need to keep it special. that idea has run all through madison history. it is caused a very interesting phenomena. that is, for people, civic leaders, who have come to the fore at key junctures of history, to say, look, we need to take a road less travel. we need higher standards. we need visionary ideas. and we need to try to achieve them. these are the kinds of things that all flowed from that fundamental perception that madison was special, and we need
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to do everything we can to keep it that way. >> throughout the weekend, american history tv is featuring madison, wisconsin. our cities tour staff recently traveled there to learn about its rich history. learn more about madison and other stops on c-span's cities tour at c-span.org/local content. you are watching american history tv all weekend every weekend on c-span 3. ago on november 15, 1939, spiro agnew argued the big networks at the time, abc, nbc, and cbs were biassed nixon administration policies in particular in regards to the speech by the president. all three networks preempted heir evening news programs to run his remarks live. >> tonight is this little group
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of men who not only enjoy a instant rebuttal to address, but ntial more importantly, wield a free hand in selecting, presenting, and interpreting the great our nation. >> monday night on "the the nicators," tim wu, columbia university law school professor who coined the term neutrality" on how to manage the internet. >> i felt one of the things that getting overlook in this debate, not everyone is overlooking it, but generally in picture is what about all people don't have broadband? get it.they going to i would say no one is addressing that right now. does give the agency more power to try to do things mandate universal service like we did for telephone service in the 20th century. and it collects money which now
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subsidize world television -- telephone service to h could be repositioned try to create broadband service. there's possibilities with title future president or the few which are fcc chairman specifically could say we need a universal broadband. so there's more power for that kind of thing. night, 8:00 eastern on "the communicators" on c-span 2. tom brokaw has reported on world events for nbc news for more than 50 years. he recalls experiences such as the fall of the berlin wall, the bush versus gore 2000 election, and what stories are most memorable to him. he also shares anecdotes about what happened before and after the cameras were on and reflects on how the news media has

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